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Infertility: Causes, Risk Factors, and Precautionary Measures

  • By Newmi
  • •  Oct 30, 2022

Women across India are facing infertility problems at an increased rate. And this calls for attention because infertility can have a serious impact on your mental state as well as your married life. When a couple attempts to conceive for a year without success, they are typically at risk of being diagnosed with infertility. There can be several causes or factors that contribute to women's infertility. We have discussed all of them in detail along with some excellent preventive measures. So, let’s start without any further delay.

In this article:

  • What is Infertility,it's causes and types?
  • Factors Increasing the Risk of Infertility or Contributing to it?
  • Treatment of Diagnosed Infertility
  • Precautionary measures for Preventing Infertility
  • Frequestly Asked Questions
  • Schedule your Consultation

What is Infertility, its causes and types?

    If you've tried to conceive with frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year without success, you may be experiencing infertility. The period of time needed to diagnose infertility decreases to six months for women over the age of 35, though. And a quick examination is necessary for women over 40. Causes of female infertility can be a malfunctioning reproductive system, chronic disease or several other factors that we’ll be discussing in a short while. However, the types of infertility in women are limited to two-

    Primary – It is diagnosed when a woman who has never given birth and is unable to get pregnant after a year without using birth control.

    Secondary - A woman experiences secondary infertility when she is unable to conceive after at least one successful pregnancy.

    Factors Increasing the Risk of Infertility or Contributing to It

      As mentioned earlier, infertility in women might only not be due to some issue in their reproductive system. Several factors, either medical or lifestyle, could contribute to it. Here is the list of the most common causes and factors that contribute to female infertility, have a look-


      Age causes a decrease in fertility because both the quantity and quality of eggs decline, especially after the age of 35. All of a woman's eggs are present at birth and are retained in the ovaries. Hence, your eggs also age as you do, which significantly reduces your probability of getting pregnant.

      Abnormal Menstruation

      Anovulation is the medical term used when you aren't ovulating and have irregular periods, no periods, or abnormal bleeding. A major portion of all cases of infertility is caused by irregular or atypical ovulation.


      Diabetic women's reproductive cycles may be shorter due to delayed menarche and early menopause. However, these irregularities can be improved and fertility rates can be raised with better glycemic control and the prevention of diabetic complications.

      Blocked fallopian tubes

      The movement of the sperm to the egg or the fertilized egg to the uterus might be hindered by damaged or clogged fallopian tubes, which can prevent a woman from becoming pregnant. You will have to consult an OB-GYN and get the tests done to confirm if this is the reason behind your infertility.


      A woman suffering from PCOS experiences considerable hormonal imbalance. And this hormonal imbalance affects the release and growth of eggs from your ovaries. If you are suffering from PCOS, we suggest you consult a doctor even before you experience infertility symptoms and start your family planning.

      Thyroid disease

      When your thyroid gland is underactive and less thyroid hormone is produced, you have hypothyroidism. Additionally, low amounts of thyroid hormone might interfere with ovulation, which in turn reduces fertility. Furthermore, certain autoimmune or pituitary problems, one of the underlying causes of hypothyroidism, may also hamper fertility.

      Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

      One in ten PID patients experiences infertility. It is so because fallopian tube scarring can be brought on by PID. The scarring may obstruct the tubes, which would make it impossible to fertilize an egg and hence result in infertility.


      The two STDs most likely to induce infertility are chlamydia and gonorrhoea, both of which can cause PID in females. However, both of these STDs are preventable.


      Although it's unlikely that stress alone has the potential to cause infertility, it can prevent a woman from becoming pregnant. Please note that stress can also bring about hormonal changes in your body which might become the reason behind your infertility or inability to conceive.

      Smoking and Alcohol

      Some studies have shown that drinking and smoking raise the risk of infertility in women.


      By altering the way a woman's body stores sex hormones, obesity has an impact on infertility. In addition, leptin, a hormone made in fatty tissue, is present in greater amounts in obese women. This hormone may affect the balance of sex hormones and in turn lower fertility. Likewise, if a woman is underweight, her fertility will get affected due to hormonal imbalance.


      High-intensity workouts are not suggested while you are trying to conceive or going for IVF as it may lead to anovulation (lack of ovulation).

      Eating disorders

      A study conducted by King’s College London has shown that women suffering from eating disorders have a higher risk of experiencing infertility and unplanned pregnancies.

      Treatment of Diagnosed Infertility

      Treatment for infertility is based on the underlying cause, your age, and the length of your infertility.  In general, treatments either use methods to assist you in getting pregnant or try to restore fertility through medication or surgery.

      Medication: Infertility medications might include drugs like metformin, bromocriptine, letrozole, gonadotropins, clomiphene citrate, etc. Please note that medications for fertility should not be consumed without consulting a doctor as you might experience serious side effects.

      Surgery: Surgeries might include laparoscopic methods to fix the problems in the uterine anatomy and tubal methods to fix the blockage in the fallopian tubes.

      Precautionary Measures for Preventing Infertility

      Although infertility can be only treated with medical help, namely medications and surgeries, there still are some precautionary measures that you can take.  These measures will help you lead a healthy life and reduce the chances of infertility.

      Maintain Weight

      You have just read that weight messes up your hormones which in turn becomes a reason behind infertility. Hence, it is best to maintain a healthy weight. Maintaining a healthy weight has several other advantages as well. Your menstrual cycle will be more regular, your sleep cycle and quality will improve and your mental well-being will become more stable.

      Reduce Caffeine

      It has been found that women who consume a significant amount of caffeine on a regular basis may have a higher risk of infertility. It is so because excessive caffeine consumption increases the risk of infertility caused by tubal and cervical factors. Therefore, we will suggest you cut down your caffeine intake.

      Stop Smoking

      Smoking affects the hormone production in your body quite negatively as mentioned earlier. It would be better if you and your partner could quit or reduce smoking and drinking.

      Practice safe sex

      As we have mentioned earlier, STDs like gonorrhoea and chlamydia affect your fertility. Hence, it is best to indulge in safe sex from the very beginning.

      Improve your diet

      Reduced reproductive performance is linked to inadequate protein, micro and macro mineral, and vitamin consumption. It is so because the lower ovulatory maturation in women and the altered energy balance are linked. Therefore, it is suggested that you maintain a healthy diet and follow diet plans strictly.

      Fertility preservation

      Age plays a major role in infertility and family planning usually gets a bit delayed in today’s fast-paced life. However, science has made several advancements and it is now possible to preserve or freeze your embryo. You can also freeze your eggs if you don’t want to have a baby now.

      Do yoga

      As you have read that stress might be to blame for your infertility, it is best to incorporate yoga into your routine. It has been found that yoga has quite a positive effect on the anxiety scores of infertile women. Additionally, there are certain yoga poses like Supta Baddha Konasana, Uttana Shishosana, Bhujangasana, etc.  that will help women to conceive However, doing yoga might seem like a cakewalk, something that you can do by just watching the videos, but sadly it’s not the case. Initially, you will need guidance from an experienced yoga instructor.

      Regular visits to your OB-GYN

      Regular consultations with OB-GYN are necessary to be on the safer side. You and your partner must make sure to visit your doctors regularly once you start family planning. Likewise, if you have already been diagnosed with infertility, it is suggested that you stay in continuous touch with a fertility expert either online or offline.

      Frequently Asked Questions

      Although we have covered everything in detail, we still have listed down some of the frequently asked questions related to infertility. Have a look-

      Can yoga increase fertility in females?

      It may not directly help in increasing fertility but several studies have discovered that yoga does indirectly help people who are trying to get pregnant or are infertile.

      What factors increase the risk of infertility?

      Several factors like age, sexual history, chronic disease, diabetes, thyroid stress, smoking, weight, STDs, etc increase the risk on infertility in women.

      When should I seek help for Infertility?

      It's likely that you are infertile if you haven't been able to concieve despite trying for a year, therefore you should get help.

      What are some fertility treatment options for women? 

      Infertility treatment is usually done using medications and surgeries.

      Do oral contraceptives cause infertility?

      Contrary to popular belief, oral contraceptives do not cause infertility in women, no matter how long they have been using them. 

      Schedule Your Consultation

      A lot of women in India experience infertility but not all remain childless forever. With the help of medications, surgeries and suggestions of fertility experts, you can become fertile again. We at Newmi provide extensive services, right from mental health and well-being to online consultations. Our fertility experts and team members will be more than happy to help you, we will together make it possible, don’t worry. Schedule your consultation today!

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